There is little known about whether exposure to family poverty at specific periods of the early life course independently contributes to coronary heart disease risk beyond the contribution of concurrent poverty.
Children were recruited in early pregnancy and additional survey data obtained during the pregnancy and at the 5-, 14- and 30-year follow-ups. Fasting blood samples were also obtained at the 30-year follow-up. Analyses are multinominal logistic regressions stratified by gender and with adjustments for confounding.
For male offspring, family poverty at different stages of the early life course was not associated with measures of cardio-metabolic risk. For females early life course, poverty predicted obesity, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C), as well as concurrent family poverty associated with obesity, HOMA-IR, TC/HDL-C, HDL-C and increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Family poverty in the early life course independently predicts increased levels of cardio-metabolic risk of females. The primary finding, however, is that concurrent poverty is independently and strongly associated with increased cardio-metabolic risk levels in young adulthood.