Post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is one of the primary complications during the course of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to define factors associated with the development of PTH in patients who underwent unilateral decompressive craniectomy (DC) for TBI.
A total of 126 patients, who met the inclusion criteria of the study, were divided into two groups: patients with PTH (n = 25) and patients without PTH (n = 101). Their demographic, clinical, radiological, operative, and postoperative factors, which may be associated with the development of PTH, were compared.
Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that cranioplasty performed later than 2 months following DC was significantly associated with the requirement for ventriculoperitoneal shunting due to PTH (p < 0.001). Also, a significant unfavorable outcome rate was observed in patients with PTH at 1-year follow-up according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (p = 0.047).
Our results show that early cranioplasty within 2 months after DC was associated with a lower rate of PTH development after TBI.