Blood donation from healthy donors is used experimental model that surrogates for class 1 hemorrhage in humans. We examined changes in the perfusion index (PI) and plethysmographic variability index (PVI) in healthy blood donors after donating a unit of blood, and we evaluated the usability of these indices in detecting blood loss volumes of less than 750 mL (class 1 hemorrhagic shock trauma patients).
Materials and methods
This study is a prospective, cross-sectional study. 180 healthy volunteers aged 18 and over, who donated blood at the local blood bank, were included in the study consecutively. The age, gender, and body mass index of the volunteers were recorded and, before and after the blood donation, the vital signs and perfusion indices were measured.
Of the donors, 61.7% were men (n = 111), and the median age of all donors was 32 (IQR: 21–39). A statistically significant difference was found between the hemodynamic parameters and PIs before and after the blood donation (p < 0.01 for all parameters; median difference of PI [− 1.45, 95% CI: (− 0.9)–( − 2)], median difference of PVI [6, 95% CI: 7.77–4.23].
We evaluated the perfusion indices in the early diagnosis of blood volume loss in patients admitted to the emergency department due to trauma. After the participants donated one unit of blood, we found that their PI decreased and PVI increased compared to the measurements before the blood donation. Considering that major bleeding starts in the very early stage as minor bleeding, it is essential for emergency physicians to recognize class 1 hemorrhagic shock patients. Further, non-invasive and straightforward procedures, such as measuring PI and PVI, can be particularly useful in identifying blood loss volumes of less than 750 mL.