Although several small-scale studies have reported risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after high tibial osteotomy (HTO), no study has collectively analysed risk factors in a large cohort. The present study aimed to clarify the risk factors for SSI after HTO using a national database.
Data of inpatients who underwent HTO from 2010 to 2017 were obtained from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in Japan. Outcome measures were the incidence of SSI and deep SSI after HTO. Associations between SSI and patient data were examined with multivariable logistic regression analysis.
Among 12,853 patients who underwent HTO, 195 developed SSI (1.52%) and 50 developed deep SSI (0.39%). Univariate analysis showed that male sex, smoking, and longer anaesthesia duration were associated with higher incidences of SSI, whereas a primary diagnosis of osteonecrosis and use of natural bone grafts were associated with lower incidences. In multivariable analysis, SSI was positively associated with male sex, anaesthesia duration longer than 210 min (vs. 150–210 min), and use of artificial bone graft (vs. natural bone graft). SSI was negatively associated with age ≤ 49 years (vs. 50–59 years) and a primary diagnosis of osteonecrosis (vs. osteoarthritis).
The present study revealed novel risk factors for SSI after HTO that previous studies have failed to find, including use of artificial bone graft and longer anaesthesia duration; primary diagnosis of osteonecrosis and younger age were novel protective factors. These findings will help surgeons assess risks of SSI after HTO in individual patients.