For some congenital heart lesions, higher institutional surgical volume has been associated with better survival than in lower volume centers. The relationship between institutional surgical volume and mortality in infants after total anomalous pulmonary vein return (TAPVR) repair has not been well explored. The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File was queried for hospitalizations including TAPVR repair in infants between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2016. We first evaluated the change in mortality over the study period. We then evaluated associations between institutional TAPVR surgical volume and mortality using univariable analysis and multivariable analysis accounting for center effects. For secondary analyses, we evaluated the association between volume and mortality among non-mutually exclusive TAPVR subsets, including isolated TAPVR, TAPVR with other congenital heart disease (CHD), TAPVR with heterotaxy, and TAPVR with single ventricle anatomy. Of 971 surgical hospitalizations that met inclusion criteria, 62% were male. Mortality after TAPVR repair decreased over the study period from 15.1% (1999–2004) to 7.6% (2012–2016) with an odds ratio per increasing year of 0.96 (95% CI 0.92–0.99, p = 0.030). By univariable analysis, earlier era, preterm birth, lower institutional surgical volume, heterotaxy, and additional CHD were associated with increased mortality. Institutional surgical volume remained significant in multivariate analysis with an odds ratio per increase in surgical volume of every 10 patients of 0.93 (95% CI 0.90–0.96, p < 0.001). When examining by subgroup, isolated TAPVR had the lowest mortality (n = 606, mortality = 6%), compared to TAPVR with other CHD (n = 359, mortality = 20%), TAPVR with heterotaxy (n = 135, mortality = 21%), and TAPVR with single ventricle (n = 128, mortality = 23%). In all groups except those with single ventricle, higher surgical volume was associated with lower mortality in multivariate analyses (isolated TAPVR p = 0.001, TAPVR with other CHD p = 0.009, TAPVR with heterotaxy p < 0.001, TAPVR with single ventricle p = 0.161). This is the first study to demonstrate an association between institutional surgical volume and mortality after TAPVR repair. Higher volume centers are associated with lower hospital mortality after TAPVR repair, including TAPVR with other CHD.