Medial valgus-producing tibial osteotomy (MVTO) is classically used to treat early medial femorotibial osteoarthritis. Long-term results depend on the mechanical femorotibial angle (HKA) obtained at the end of the procedure. A correction goal between 3 and 6° valgus is commonly accepted. Several planning methods are described to achieve this goal, but none is superior to the other.
The main objective was to compare the accuracy of the correction obtained using either the Hernigou table (HT) or a so-called conventional method (CM) for which 1° of correction corresponds to 1° of osteotomy opening. The secondary objective was to analyze the variations observed in the sagittal plane on the tibial slope and on the patellar height. The working hypothesis was that the HT allowed a more accurate correction and that the tibial slope and patellar height were modified in both groups.
Material and method
In this monocentric and retrospective study, two senior surgeons operated on 39 knees (18 in the CM group, 21 in the HT group) between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014. The operator was unique for each group and expert in the technique used. The correction objective chosen for each patient, and written in the operative report, was considered as the one to be achieved. The surgical correction was the difference between the pre-operative and immediate post-operative data (< 5 J) for the mechanical tibial angle (MTA) and the hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle. Surgical accuracy, where a value close to 0 is optimal, was the absolute value of the difference between the surgical correction performed and the goal set by the surgeon.
The median surgical accuracy on the MTA was 3.5° [0.2–7.4] versus 1.4° [0–4.1] in the CM and HT groups, respectively (p = 0.006). In multivariate analysis, with the same objective, the CM had a significantly lower accuracy of 1.9° ± 0.8 (p = 0.02). For HKA, the median accuracy was 3.1° [0.3–7.3] versus 0.8° [0–5] in the CM and HT groups, respectively (p = 0.006). Five (5/18, 28%) and 16 (16/21, 76%) knees were within 3° of the target in the CM and HT groups, respectively (p = 0.004). The median tibial slope increased in both groups. This increase was significantly greater in the CM group compared with the HT group, with 5.5° [− 0.3–13] versus 0.5 [− 5.2–5.6], respectively (p < 0.001). The median Caton-Deschamps index decreased (patella lowered) in both groups after surgery, by − 0.21 [− 1.03; − 0.05] and − 0.14 [− 0.4–0.16], but without significant difference (p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, changes in tibial slope and patellar height were not significantly related to frontal surgical correction performed according to ΔMTA (R2 = 0.07; p = 0.055) and (R2 = − 0.02; p = 0.54) respectively.
The correction set by the surgeons was achieved with greater accuracy and more frequently in the HT group, confirming the working hypothesis. The HT is therefore recommended as a simple way of achieving the set objective; the tibial slope and patellar height were modified unaffected by the frontal correction performed.