Previous reports revealed a correlation between psychological problems and spinal surgery. There is a lack of knowledge on the effect of anxiety on the percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) outcome at the two year follow-up. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in anxiety after PTED among patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH), to compare the effect of anxiety on the prognosis using propensity score matching analysis, and to identify the related parameters of anxiety.
A total of 145 patients with LDH requiring PTED surgery were included. Twenty-six LDH patients with anxiety were matched with 26 control patients utilizing propensity score matching analysis. The demographic and peri-operative data were collected and analyzed. A correlation analysis was utilized.
Both groups achieved significant improvements in visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores for neurological deficit, and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores for quality of life. A statistical difference was detected between the pre-operative and the post-operative Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores in the anxiety cohort. However, the difference between the anxiety group and the control group was statistically significant in the aforementioned parameters. The VAS, JOA, ODI and the SF-36 scores, and the disease duration were associated with pre-operative anxiety.
PTED may provide significant improvements in clinical outcomes and symptoms of anxiety. A negative impact on the patient’s prognosis may be caused by the presence of anxiety. Pain severity, neurological deficit, disease duration, and quality of life were associated with anxiety.