Sensory nerves sensitive to capsaicin are afferent nerve fibers which contain TRPV1 channels. Activation of these channels induces release of neuropeptides which regulate local blood flow and immune response. Inactivation of sensory neurons either with high-dose capsaicin treatment or local ablation of vagal sensory nerve activity markedly increases metastasis of breast carcinoma formed by 4T1 derivative cells. These cancer cells also induce an extensive systemic inflammatory response. Further findings have documented that lack of local sensory neuromediators alters phenotype of cancer cells within primary tumor leading to overgrowth of metastatic subsets. This might be due to decreases in local and systemic immune response to growing tumor. Specifically, Substance P, one of the most abundant sensory neuropeptides, enhances anti-tumoral immune response evoked by radiotherapy under in vivo conditions. These findings further suggest that activation of TRPV1 channels on sensory neurons may induce an anti-tumoral immune response. We are testing this hypothesis. Our initial results as reported here demonstrate anti-inflammatory consequences of low-dose systemic capsaicin treatment. In conclusion, sensory nerve fibers sensitive to capsaicin have important roles in defense against metastatic breast carcinoma; hence, controlled activation of these neural pathways might be effective in cancer therapy. Specifically, activation of sensory fibers of left vagus nerve using a perineuronal stimulation may inhibit metastasis of breast carcinoma. Likewise, pharmacological modulators of TRPV1 channels may induce anti-tumoral immune response. Exact players of this newly explored defense system are, however, only partly validated, and further studies are required.