The aim of this study was to investigate the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the induction of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in ovarian cancer. CSC were defined as tumor cells expressing high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH 1). We inoculated G-CSF-expressing or Mock-expressing ovarian cancer cells into mice, and the frequencies of MDSC and CSC in tumors of these models were compared by flow cytometry. To directly demonstrate the role of MDSC in the induction of CSC and the increase in PD-L1 expression, we performed in vitro co-culture. MDSC and CSC (ALDH-high cells) were more frequently observed in G-CSF-expressing cell-derived tumors than in Mock-expressing cell-derived tumors. Co-culture experiments revealed that MDSC increased the number of CSC via the production of PGE2. Moreover, PGE2 produced by MDSC increased tumor PD-L1 expression via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in ovarian cancer cells. In an in vitro experiment in which ovarian cancer cells were co-cultured with MDSC, higher expression of PD-L1 was observed in CSC than in non-CSC (ALDH-low cells). Furthermore, by immunofluorescence staining, we found that PD-L1 was co-expressed with ALDH1 in in vivo mouse models. In conclusion, PGE2 produced by MDSC increases the stem cell-like properties and tumor PD-L1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer. Depleting MDSC may be therapeutically effective against ovarian cancer by reducing the number of CSC and tumor PD-L1 expression.