Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous malignant disease characterized by a collection of genetic and epigenetic changes. As a consequence, AML can evolve towards more aggressive subtypes during treatment, which require additional therapies to prevent future relapse. As we have previously detected double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), in this current study we attempted to evaluate the potential diagnostic applications of AML EV-dsDNA derived from primary bone marrow and peripheral blood plasma samples. EVs from plasma of 29 pediatric AML patients (at initial diagnosis or during treatment) were isolated by ultracentrifugation, after which dsDNA was extracted from obtained EVs and analyzed for leukemia-specific mutations using next generation sequencing (NGS) and GeneScan-based fragment-length analysis. In 18 out of 20 patients, dsDNA harvested from EVs mirrored the (leukemia-specific) mutations found in the genomic DNA obtained from primary leukemia cells. In the nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), a decrease in EV numbers was observed in patients after treatment compared with initial diagnosis. Following treatment, in 75 samples out of the 79, these mutations were no longer detectable in EV-dsDNA. In light of our results, we propose the use of leukemia-derived EV-dsDNA as an additional measure for mutational status and, potentially, treatment response in pediatric AML.